THE VALOIS DUKES OF BURGUNDY

PHILIPPE II OF BURGUNDY known as Philip the Bold ( 1342-1404)

  

   «Philip the Bold»

  

  n 1361 duke Philippe of Rouvres, the last of the Burgundy Capetian dukes, died from the plague without a heir. John the Good who was then king of France took back the duchy for himself.

  In 1356 at the battle of Poitiers where John the Good was fighting against the English, his young son Philip had shown great courage, which is why he was later called “The Bold”.

  In 1364 the king rewarded him by giving him the Duchy in apanage, which means that if he had no male heir the duchy would fall back to the kingdom of France.

  Then Philip married with Marguerite of Flanders whose father, Count Louis II of Flanders (known as de Mâle) died in 1384. Then duke Philip was at the head of a huge territory extending as far as Flanders.

  He was considered as bold and very bright but according to some chroniclers “as ugly as courteous”. .

  Philip the Bold died in 1404 after he had ruled for 40 years.

JEAN I OF BURGUNDY known as John the Fearless (1371-1419)

  

   «Jean sans Peur»

  

  

  orn in Dijon in 1371 from Philip the Bold and Marguerite of Flanders, Jean I of Burgundy ruled over Burgundy from 1404 to 1419 ( 15 years)

  His only wife was Margaret of Bavaria (who died in 1422) with whom he had a son, later known as Philip the Good.

  He was never properly dressed, had no distinction and no eloquence, and his whole life was guided by intrigues around the King of France Charles V known as “Le Fol” (the fool). He allied with the English against the Armagnacs, who were the supporters of the duke of Orleans.

  In 1407 he had his cousin Louis of Orléans assassinated in Paris and in 1419, as he was trying to reconcile with the king of France Charles V the Fol, he was in his turn assassinated on the bridge of Montereau where the meeting had been planned.

PHILIPPE III OF BURGUNDY known as Philip the Good (1396-1467)

  

   «Philip the Good»

  orn in Dijon in 1396 from John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria, Philip III of Burgundy known as Philip the Good ruled from 1419 until 1467 (48 years)

  In 1409 when he was 13 years old he married Michelle of France known as Michelle of Valois ( 1395 1422) who was then 14 years old and daughter of Charles VI and Isabeau of Bavaria, who brought him the towns of the Somme, the Boulonnais and Picardy.

  They had one daughter, Agnes of Burgundy.

  Michelle of France died in Gand at the age of 26.

  His second wife was Bonne of Artois, daughter of Count Philippe of Artois, with whom he married in 1424, but who died in 1425.

  His third wife was Isabel of Portugal with whom he married in 1430 and to whom he dedicated the creation of the Order of the Golden Fleece.

  They had a son, Charles the Bold.

  As a revenge for the death of his father John the Fearless who had been assassinated in Montereau in 1419 he allied with the English and his Lieutenant John of Luxemburg would later give Joan of Arc to the English.

  In 1435 with the treaty of Arras he reconciled with Charles VII king of France, as he was ruling over the duchy of Burgundy, the County of Burgundy, the cities of the Somme and Artois, Flanders and Belgian provinces.

  He was a great sponsor to the arts with a gorgeous living style and a very hectic sentimental life, counting 24 official mistresses and 17 bastards, two of them being bishops of Utrecht.

  The end of his life was darkened by the intrigues fomented by his son Charles (later called Charles the Bold) and he died on June 15th 1467 at the age of 71.

CHARLES OF BURGUNDY known as Charles the Bold (1433-1477)

  

   «Charles the Bold»

  orn in Dijon in 1433 from Philip the Good and Isabel of Portugal, Charles the Bold ruled from 1467 to 1477(10 years)

  He married Catherine of France, known as Catherine de Valois, when she was only 12 years old.

  Then he married Isabelle de Bourbon with whom he had a daughter, Mary of Burgundy, who was to become the heir to the throne.

  In 1468 he married Marguerite of York in a gorgeous way, so that the king of France was at his mercy, as his aim was to be elected Emperor of Germany.

  But European princes were worried by his ambition that they feared and they progressively went away from him. He finally lost two battles against the Swiss in Grandson and Morat in 1476.

  In January 1477 he was killed in the battle of Nancy in eastern France.

   Then Burgundy was split between the Habsburgs from Austria (as his daughter Mary of Burgundy had married Austrian archduke Maximilian of Habsburg) and France which was under the rule of King Louis XI.

    9/12